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Electronic cigarette

e-cigarettes and vaporizers


Ecig Canada Zone has a wide variety of electronic cigarettes and vape mods for every taste and budget. Vaporizers give users all the things they need and want: the ability to have control nicotine levels, no ash and no tar. Plus, they won't stain your teeth or leave a bad, stale taste in your mouth like a traditional cigarette. Vaping has taken the world by storm in popularity, and the options and accessories have become even more fun and varied. Whether you’re new to the vaping world or are a vape enthusiast with a modded out device, we’ve got something for everyone from starters to mods & temp control devices too.

An electronic cigarette (e-cig or e-cigarette), personal vaporizer (PV) or electronic nicotine delivery system(ENDS) is a battery-powered vaporizer which has the feel of tobacco smoking. They produce a mist rather than cigarette smoke.[1][2] In general a heating element vaporizes a liquid solution known as e-liquid. E-liquids usually contain a mixture ofpropylene glycolglycerinnicotine, and flavorings.[1] Others have similar ingredients but without nicotine.[3]

The benefits and risks of electronic cigarette use are uncertain.[4][5] Evidence suggests e-cigarettes may be safer than smoking tobacco products.[6][7] They may possibly be as safe as other nicotine replacement products, but there is not enough data to draw conclusions.[6][7] They may carry a risk of addiction in those who do not already smoke,[8] but there is no evidence of ongoing use among those who have never smoked.[9] They may promote delaying or deterring to quit smoking.[1] Emissions from e-cigarette contains flavors, aroma transporters, glycerol, propylene glycol, nicotine, carcinogens, heavy metals, ultrafine particles[neutrality is disputed], and other chemicals.[1][9] The levels of contaminants do not warrant health concerns according to workplace safety standards.[10] E-cigarette mist has fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke (other than particulates[neutrality is disputed]).[1] They are likely to be less harmful to users and bystanders.[1][9]Less serious complaints from e-cigarette users include throat and mouth inflammation, vomiting, nausea, and cough.[1]

The frequency of use has increased with up to 10% of American high school students having ever used them as of 2012 and around 3.4% of American adults as of 2011.[11] In the UK the number of e-cigarette users has increased from 700,000 in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2013. About 60% are smokers and most of the rest are ex-smokers.[12] E-cigarette users most commonly continue to smoke traditional cigarettes.[1] Current e-cigarettes arose from an invention made in China in 2003[13] and devices are often manufactured in China.[1] E-cigarette brands have increased advertising with similar marketing to that used to sell cigarettes in the 1950s and 1960s.[1]

Because of the possible relationship to tobacco laws and medical drug policies, electronic cigarette legislation is being debated in many countries.[3][14] The European Parliament passed regulations in February 2014 requiring standardization of liquids and personal vaporizers, listing of ingredients, and child-proofing of liquid containers. The United States Food and Drug Administrationpublished proposed regulations in April 2014 with some similar measures.[15]

Smoking cessation

A WHO statement from July 2013 stated that e-cigarettes haven't been shown to be effective helping people quit smoking.[8] It also recommended that "consumers should be strongly advised not to use" e-cigarettes unless a national regulatory body has found them safe and effective.[8]In July 2014, a report developed by theWorld Health Organization (WHO) found there was not enough evidence to determine if electronic cigarettes can help people quit smoking. This report noted that electronic cigarettes have not been approved, for helping people quit smoking, by any government. It suggested that smokers should be encouraged to use approved methods for help with quitting.[16] But the same report also mentioned expert opinions in scientific papers that suggested e-cigarette may have a role helping people quit that have failed using other methods.[16] Smokefree.gov, a US government website on quitting smoking, stated that e-cigarettes have not been shown to be effective in helping people quit smoking so it didn't recommend them.[17]

A 2011 review article states how electronic cigarettes may aid in smoking cessation and may likely be more effective than traditional pharmacotherapy, as the physical stimuli of holding and puffing on the electronic cigarette may better reduce short-term cravings.[18] The review found no studies that directly measured the effectiveness of electronic cigarettes in smoking cessation, and examined two published studies that indirectly consider the issue by measuring the effect of the product on cravings and other short-term indicators.[18] A 2014 review asserted how electronic cigarettes may be a reasonable substitute for cigarette smoking.[3]The review also states that even individuals that did not intend to quit smoking before being introduced to e-cigarettes may subsequently do so.[3] Another 2014 review concluded that the benefit with respect to helping people quit smoking was uncertain.[5]

The American Association of Public Health Physicians (AAPHP) suggests those who are unwilling to quit tobacco smoking or unable to quit with medical advice and pharmaceutical methods should consider other nicotine containing products such as electronic cigarettes and chewing tobacco for long term use instead of smoking.[19] The British Medical Association (BMA) reported in 2013 that there was a possibility for smoking cessation benefits, but had concerns that e-cigarettes are less regulated than nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and that there was no peer reviewed evidence concerning their safety or efficacy. Recommendations point to a "strong regulatory framework" for e-cigarette distribution in order to ensure the safety, quality, and that marketing and sales are restricted to adults. The BMA encourages health professionals to recommend conventional nicotine replacement therapies, but for patients unwilling to use or continue using such methods, health professionals may present e-cigarettes as a lower-risk option than tobacco smoking.[20] A report commissioned by Public Health England concluded that there is large potential for health benefits when switching from tobacco use to other nicotine delivery devices such as electronic cigarettes, but realizing the full potential requires regulation and monitoring to minimize possible risks.[6]

A 2012 review found electronic systems appear to generally deliver less nicotine than smoking, raising the question of whether they can effectively substitute for tobacco smoking over a long-term period.[21] A 2013 randomized controlled trial found no difference in smoking cessation rates between e-cigarettes with nicotine, e-cigarettes without nicotine and traditional NRT patches.[22] There are some non-controlled studies which have reported possible benefit.[7]

Larger numbers of young people are starting to use e-cigarettes.[1] There is a high number of youth who use e-cigarettes also smoking traditional cigarettes.[1]Some youth who have tried an e-cigarette have never smoked a traditional cigarette, this shows that they can be a starting point for nicotine use for some youth and nicotine is an addictive drug.[1] There is a high levels of use of both e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes, no proven help with stopping smoking.[1]

The concept of harm reduction has been controversial in the public health approach of tobacco control because of mistrust of the tobacco industry.[18]Electronic cigarettes were not regularly associated with trying to quit tobacco among young people.[11] Adults most often used electronic cigarettes as a replacement for tobacco, although not invariably to quit.[11]Although some people have a desire to quit smoking by using e-cigarettes, other common explanations for the use of these products are to evade smoke-free laws,[1] to reduce harm from smoking[23] and to cut back on traditional cigarettes, which may reinforce delaying or deterring to quit smoking.[1]


The risks of electronic cigarette use are uncertain.[4][5] This is due to there being little data regarding their health effects[24] and to the variability of vaporizers and variability in liquid ingredients and in their concentration and quality, and thus variability of the contents of mist delivered to the user.[1][4][21][24][25][26] However, some evidence suggests e-cigarettes may be safer than smoking tobacco products, and possibly as safe as other nicotine replacement products but there is insufficient data to draw conclusions.[1][21] Switching from smoking tobacco to using e-cigarettes may result in reduced exposure to nicotine and reduced potential risk of disease from smoking.[20][25][27]


It is not clear whether using e-cigarettes will decrease or increase overall nicotine addiction.[43] The National Institute on Drug Abuse stated that there is a possibility that they could promote continuation of addiction to nicotine in those who are attempting to quit.[44] A number of organizations have concerns that e-cigarettes might increase addiction to and use of nicotine and tobacco products in the young.[38][44][45] This including: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Food and Drug Administration.[25][36][46][47] The World Health Organization raised concern of addiction for nonsmokers from their use in July 2013.[8] A 2014 review has found no evidence that they are used regularly by those who have never smoked[9] while a 2014 review has found that in some populations nearly up to a third of youth who have ever used electronic cigarettes have never smoked traditional cigarettes.[1]


An e-cigarette atomizer with the coil (heating element) in view.

An atomizer generally consists of a small heating element responsible for vaporizing e-liquid, as well as a wicking material that draws liquid in. Along with a battery, the atomizer is the central component of every personal vaporizer. Differences between atomizers cause differences in the ingredients and their concentrations delivered to users, even when the same liquid is used.[1]

A small length of resistance wire is coiled around the wicking material and then connected to the positive and negative poles of the device. When activated the resistance wire (or coil) quickly heats up thus turning the a vapor from the liquid, which is then inhaled by the user.[55]

The electrical resistance of the coil, the voltage output of the device, the airflow of the atomizer and the efficiency of the wick play important roles in the perceived quality of the vapor comming from the atomizer. They also greatly affect the vapor quantity orvolume that will be produced by the atomizer.

Atomizer resistances usually vary from 1.5Ω (ohms) to 3.0Ω from one atomizer to the next but can go as low as 0.1Ω in the most extreme cases of DIY coil building. Coils of lower ohms have increesed vapor production but could present a fire hazard and other dangerous battery failures if the user is not knowledgeable enough about basic electrical principles and how they relate to battery safety.[56]

Wicking materials vary greatly from one atomizer to another but silica fibers are the most commonly used in manufactured atomizers. "Rebuildable" or "do it yourself" atomizers can use silica, cotton, rayon, porous ceramichempbamboo yarnoxidized stainless steel mesh and even wire rope cables as wicking materials.[57]

A wide array of atomizers and e-liquid container combinations are available:[58]


A 45mm length, extra-long cartomizer

A "cartomizer" (a portmanteau of cartridge and atomizer) or "carto" consists of an atomizer surrounded by a liquid-soaked poly-foam that acts as an e-liquid holder. It is usually disposed of once the e-liquid acquires a burnt taste, which is usually due to an activation when the coil is dry or when the cartomizer gets consistently flooded (gurgling) because ofsedimentation of the wick. Most cartomizers are refillable even if not advertised as such.[59]

Cartomizers can be used on their own or in conjunction with a tank that allows more e-liquid capacity. In this case the portmanteau word of "cartotank" has been coined. When used in a tank, the cartomizer is inserted in a plastic, glass or metal tube and holes or slots have to be punched on the sides of the cartomizer to allow liquid to reach the coil.


eGo style e-cigarette with a top-coil clearomizer. Silica fibers are hanging down freely inside of the tank, drawing e-liquid bycapillary action to the coil that is located directly under the mouthpiece.

Clearomizers or "clearos", not unlike cartotanks, use a clear tank in which an atomizer is inserted.[60] Unlike cartotanks, however, no poly-foam material can be found in them. There are a lot of different wicking systems employed inside of clearomizers to ensure good moistening of the wick without flooding the coil. Some rely on gravity to bring the e-liquid to the wick and coil assembly (bottom coil clearomizers for example) whereas others rely on capillary action and to some degree the user agitating the e-liquid while handling the clearomizer (top coil clearomizers).[61] The coil and wicks are typically inside a prefabricated assembly or "head" that is replaceable by the user and can contain either single or duel coils.[62] Present day clearomizers commonly have adjustable air flow control.[62]

Rebuildable atomizers[edit]

A rebuildable atomizer or an RBA is an atomizer that allows the user to assemble or "build" the wick and coil themselves instead of replacing them by an off-the-shelf atomizer "head". They also allow the user to build atomizers at any desired electrical resistance. The materials needed to "rebuild" the atomizers are usually much cheaper than the usual prefabricated replaceable wick and coil assemblies destined to clearomizers.

These atomizers are divided into three main categories; rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs), rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs), and rebuildable dripping tank atomizers (RDTAs).

Rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs) are similar to clearomizers in that they use a tank or container to hold and bring liquid to the coil. They usually hold significantly more e-liquid than their RDA counterparts.

Rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs) on the other hand lack the container section and hold very little liquid compared to RTAs, but are usually a lot smaller. They typically consist only of an atomizer "building deck" which can accept one or more coils and a "top cap" to cover the coils where a mouth piece can be attached. The user needs to manually keep the atomizer wet by dripping liquid on the bare wick and coil assembly, hence their name.

Rebuildable dripping tank atomizers (RDTAs) combine features of both RTAs and RDAs. They usually consist of a RDA build deck with a tank over the deck held up by a spring. The user pushes down on the mouth piece and liquid is then dripped onto the coils.This is unlike a RTA that continuously feeds liquid to the wicks.


Most portable devices contain a rechargeable battery, which tends to be the largest component of an electronic cigarette. The battery may contain an electronic airflow sensor whereby activation is triggered simply by drawing breath through the device, while other models employ a power button that must be held during operation. An LED to indicate activation may also be employed. Some manufacturers also offer a cigarette pack-shaped portable charging case (PCC), which contains a larger battery capable of charging e-cigarettes. Devices aimed at more experienced users may sport additional features, such as variable power output and support of a wide range of internal batteries and atomizer configurations and tend to stray away from the cigarette form factor. Some cheaper devices use a microphone to activate.[63] Other batteries, like Ego type batteries, can use a custom IC to indicate battery status on the included LCD and a button to activate.[64]

Variable power and voltage devices[edit]

PV with variable and regulated power offering battery protection

Variable voltage or power personal vaporizers are devices that contain a built in electronic chip that allows the user to adjust the power that goes through the heating element. They are often rectangular in shape but can be a cylinder. They are often rectangular in shape but can be a cylinder. They usually incorporate a LED screen to display various information. Variable PVs eliminate the need to replace an atomizer with another one of lower or higher electrical resistance to control the intensity of the vapor or change it[65] They also feature a voltage regulation mode and some have battery protection to prevent damage to the control board if the battery is put in wrong.[66][67]

Some of these devices offer additional features through their menu system such as: atomizer resistance checker, remaining battery voltage, puff counter, activation cut-off etc.[68]

On 9/2/2014 Evolv vapor received a patent on variable wattage. Evolve was the company that introduced variable wattage to the industry. The technology goes all the way back to the Darwin, the companies first variable wattage device.[69]

The DNA 40 is a control board can be used in devices that control variable wattage and voltage was released in October 2014. The DNA 40 is the first control board to monitor and control the temperature of the heating coil. Controlling temperature is important to limit charing of the wicking material and reduce the breakdown of flavoring and base liquid ingredients.[70]

Mechanical personal vaporizers[edit]

Mechanical PV with a rebuildable atomizer

Mechanical PVs or mechanical "mods", often called "mechs" are devices without electronic components and battery protection (apart from vent holes drilled in some mechanical devices) or voltage regulation. Because there is neither protection nor regulation, they will work either way the battery is inserted. They are activated by spring loaded or opposing magnetic mechanical switches, hence their name. They rely on the natural voltage output of a battery and the material that the mod is made of.[71]

The term "mod" was originally used instead of modification.[72] Users would modify existing hardware to get better performance, and as an alternative to the ecigarettes that looked like traditional cigarettes.[72] Users would also modify other items like flashlights as battery compartments to power atomizers.[73] Today the word mod is used to describe most personal vaporizers either bought in a store or created by the user.

They are commonly used with "low resistance" (1.0Ω ~ 0.2Ω) rebuildable atomizers. Seeing that most e-cigarettes containing electronic battery protection will interpret sub ohm resistance coils as a short circuit, thus prohibiting the device from being activated, mechanical mods are among the only devices that will accept such atomizer resistances although more recent (2013) electronic devices offers this possibility as well.[citation needed]

Since mechanical PVs are unregulated and unprotected, they require special attention on the user's part that other regulated and protected PVs do not need. Making sure that the battery does not over-discharge and that the atomizer will not require more amperage than what the battery can safely allow are the user's responsibilities.[71]


E-liquid, e-juice or simply "juice", refers to a liquid solution thaat when heated by an atomizer produces vapor. The main ingredients of e-liquids are usually a mix of propylene glycol (PG), glycerin (G), and/or polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), sometimes with differing levels of alcohol mixed with concentrated or extracted flavorings; and optionally, a variable concentration of tobacco-derived nicotine.[7][74] Most e-cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine is chosen by the consumer.[10] The consumer can even purchase e-liquid that has no nicotine.[10]

The solution is often sold in bottles or pre-filled disposable cartridges, or as a kit for consumers to make their own eJuices. Components are also available individually and consumers may choose to modify or boost their flavor, nicotine strength, or concentration with various offerings. Pre-made e-liquids are manufactured with various tobacco, fruit, and other flavors,[1] as well as variable nicotine concentrations (including nicotine-free versions). The standard notation "mg/ml" is often used in labeling for denoting nicotine concentration, and is sometimes shortened to a simple "mg".[75] In surveys of regular e-cigarette users the most liked e-liquids had a nicotine content of 18 mg/ml, and largely the favorite flavors were tobacco, mint and fruit.[9]


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